I have met with numerous large mining operations in the last two years (in the US, a few countries in Europe and China). I have seen a lot of different ways to set up mining centers.
The miners who pay the least in electricity pay about $0.03 per kwh. These are miners based in Washington State and some small operations in the European Alps. Both of these operations use hydro power.
Chinese miners pays about $0.04 per kwh. Some pay a little less and some pay a little more.
Some miners are inefficient at cooling and some are very efficient. Using HVAC is the most expensive. The small operations in the Alps are using the natural cool air to cool their miners. This seems to be the most cost-effective. The next most cost-effective is liquid submersion cooling.
Natural air-cooled mining centers are the cheapest to build. They basically just need fans to pull in the cool outside air and exhaust fans to exhaust it. These systems add about 5% in energy consumption for each miner.
HVAC is pretty costly to purchase and adds about 25% in energy consumption to each miner.
Liquid submersion cooling is very expensive to build but it is the most efficient. You can disconnect the cooling fans when the miner is submerged in liquid. This saves about 8% on energy usage per miner. So, liquid submersion cooling actually SAVES energy costs BUT it is crazy expensive to build.